Anteprima del fascicolo n. 44, 25 maggio 2022, vol. II

Pubblichiamo alcuni saggi del Volume II del fascicolo 44, in allestimento:

Editoriale

Un breve ricordo di Luca Serianni (21 luglio 2022), di Maria Panetta

 

Letture critiche

“Tutto è santo”. Visioni ultraterrene nel romanzo I vivi e i morti di Giuseppe Antonio Borgese, di Andrea Schembari

Abstract: The article traces the existential research, divided between mystical tension and resurrection hope, of Eliseo Gaddi, protagonist of the novel I vivi e i morti (1923) by Giuseppe Antonio Borgese. In particular, the contribution focuses on the narrative sequence dedicated by Borgese to the vision of the afterlife “experienced” in a dream by the character, highlighting some elements taken from the early Christian tradition of the genre.

“Sylvie” de Gérard de Nerval : récit hybride et initiatique, di Riccardo Raimondo

Abstract: La novella Sylvie di Gérard de Nerval è una narrazione complessa che ha ispirato un gran numero di letture e d’interpretazioni. Questo articolo esamina la struttura profonda della narrazione nervaliana mentre passa in rassegna le principali letture dell’opera, in particolare quelle narratologiche, poetiche e simboliche. Contrariamente alla riflessione di Franck Paul Bauman, il testo non sembra presentarsi «come una ricerca del tempo perduto, dove il tempo si rivela perso per sempre», ma piuttosto come una narrazione che mira alla “ricomposizione” dei ricordi del personaggio attraverso alcune tappe fondamentali della sua vita. Questo processo di ricomposizione raggiungerebbe una serie di rivelazioni che hanno sia una funzione simbolica che diegetica. Questa tecnica narrativa gioca, infine, su due campi, come un meccanismo che struttura l’intera narrazione. Da un lato, attraverso i suoi movimenti imprecisi, genera la struttura impalpabile e imprecisa della storia, che è diversa da quella dell’intreccio. D’altra parte, rappresenta un trucco per confondere la voce intra-diegetica e quella extra-diegetica, attraverso meccanismi di metalepsi che a volte sono piuttosto difficili da afferrare. Questo processo mira, in tutti i casi, a dare una composizione organica e una vocazione lineare alla narrazione. Anche se lo scarto tra il tempo della fabula e il tempo dell’intreccio gioca un ruolo importante nella composizione di Sylvie (come ha notato Umberto Eco), questo sembra avere un valore puramente funzionale e costitutivo, piuttosto che strutturante e fondativo. Quale sarebbe dunque la “struttura profonda” di questa narrazione nervaliana? Le letture simboliche di Jean Richer o Georges Poules, le analisi narratologiche di Umberto Eco, le osservazioni stilistiche e poetiche di Jean-Nicolas Illouz, tra gli altri, testimoniano di una narrazione estremamente complessa di cui è difficile cogliere le trame strutturanti. Il “genere naturale”, che sottende tutte le strutture superficiali che possiamo trovare in Sylvie consisterebbe in un tipo molto specifico di romanzo di formazione, ossia il romanzo d’iniziazione. Da questo punto di vista, la narrazione di Sylvie implicherebbe una mitopoietica molto complessa attraverso la quale un archetipo femminile viene declinato attraverso forme tipiche più o meno dettagliate: Sylvie, Adrienne e Aurélie rappresenterebbero, così, le irradiazioni o tracce di uno stesso archetipo mitico. Gli incontri simbolici con i personaggi femminili – le “chimere” nervaliane – designerebbero un percorso iniziatico di conoscenza, come mostra chiaramente l’ultimo capitolo. Si tratta di un percorso che potrebbe essere riassunto in tre tappe ideali, ma non necessariamente consecutive: l’esperienza del reale (Sylvie), dell’ideale (Adrienne) e del disincanto (Aurélie). Attraverso questo viaggio iniziatico, l’innamorato nervaliano raggiungerà infine una sorta di quiete filosofica, carica di amarezza ma fortificata dalla saggezza della maturità, una calma che vacilla solo per rivolgersi, ma solo per un attimo, a un antico sogno di beatitudine: «C’era forse la felicità; tuttavia…» (Sylvie, XIV.3).

Abstract: Gérard de Nerval’s Sylvie is a complex narrative that has inspired a large number of analysis and interpretations. This article examines the deep structure of the Nervalian narrative while reviewing the main critical approaches to the work, notably narratological, poetic and symbolic. Contrary to Franck Paul Bauman’s reflection, the text is not presented «as a search for lost time, where time is revealed to be lost forever», but rather as a narrative aiming to the recomposition of the character’s memories through certain fundamental stages of his life. This recomposition process would achieve a series of revelations that have both a symbolic and diegetic function. This narrative technique plays, finally, on two fields, as a mechanism that structures the whole narrative. On the one hand, through its imprecise movements, it generates the vague structure of the story, which is different from that of the plot. On the other hand, it represents a trick to confuse the intra-diegetic and extra-diegetic voices, through mechanisms of metalepsis that are sometimes quite difficult to grasp. This process aims, in all cases, to give an organic composition and a linear vocation to the narrative. Although the gap between the plot time and the story time plays a major role in the composition of Sylvie (as Umberto Eco remarked), this seems to have a purely functional and constitutive value, rather than a structuring and founding one. What, then, would be the “deep structure” of this Nervalian narrative? The symbolic approaches of Jean Richer or Georges Poules, the narratological analyses of Umberto Eco, the stylistic and poetic remarks of Jean-Nicolas Illouz, among others, testify to an extremely complex narrative whose structuring wefts one cannot identify. The “natural genre” of this narrative — which underlies all the superficial structures that can be found in Sylvie — would consist of a very specific type of Bildungsroman, namely the “initiation novel” (roman d’initiation). From this point of view, Sylvie’s narrative would imply a mythopoetics by which a female archetype is declined through more or less detailed typical forms: Sylvie, Adrienne and Aurélie would thus represent the irradiations or traces of the same mythic archetype. The symbolic encounters with the female characters — Nervalian chimeras — would designate a path of knowledge, as the last chapter clearly shows. It is a journey that could be summarised in three ideal, but not necessarily consecutive, stages: the experience of the real (Sylvie), the ideal (Adrienne) and the disenchantment (Aurélie). Through this initiatory journey, the Nervalian lover would finally reach a kind of philosophical quietude, laden with bitterness though fortified by the wisdom of the maturity, a calm that only wavers to turn, but only for a moment, to an ancient dream of bliss: «There was happiness perhaps; however…» (Sylvie, XIV.3).

Abstract: La nouvelle Sylvie de Gérard de Nerval est un récit complexe qui a inspiré un grand nombre de lectures et d’interprétations. Cet article s’interroge sur la structure profonde du récit nervalien tout en parcourant les principales approches critiques de l’œuvre, notamment narratologiques, poétiques et symboliques. Contrairement à la réflexion de Franck Paul Bauman, le texte ne se présenterait pas « comme une recherche du temps perdu, où le temps se révèle perdu à jamais », mais plutôt comme un récit visant une recomposition des souvenirs du personnage à travers certaines étapes fondamentales de sa vie. Ce processus de recomposition parviendrait à accomplir une série de révélations qui ont à la fois une fonction symbolique et diégétique. Cette technique narrative joue, enfin, sur deux champs, en tant que mécanisme qui structure toute la narration. D’un côté, à travers ses mouvements imprécis, il engendre la structure vague de l’histoire, qui est différente de celle de l’intrigue. De l’autre côté, il représente une astuce pour confondre les voix intra-diégétique et extra-diégétique, à travers des mécanismes de métalepses parfois assez difficiles à saisir. Ce processus vise, dans tous les cas, à donner une dimension organique et une vocation linéaire au récit. Bien que le décalage entre le temps de l’intrigue et celui de l’histoire joue un rôle majeur dans la composition de Sylvie (comme l’a remarqué Umberto Eco), cela semble avoir une valeur uniquement fonctionnelle et constituante, plutôt que structurante et fondatrice. Quelle serait donc la « structure profonde » de ce récit nervalien ? Les lectures symboliques de Jean Richer ou de Georges Poules, les analyses narratologiques d’Umberto Eco, les remarques stylistiques et poétiques de Jean-Nicolas Illouz, parmi d’autres, témoignent d’un récit extrêmement complexe dont on ne parvient pas à saisir les trames structurantes. Le « genre naturel », à la base de toutes les structures superficielles qu’on peut relever dans Sylvie, consisterait dans un type très particulier de roman de formation, à savoir le roman initiatique. De ce point de vue, le récit de Sylvie impliquerait une mythopoïétique par laquelle un archétype féminin se décline à travers des formes typiques plus ou moins détaillées : Sylvie, Adrienne et Aurélie représenteraient ainsi des irradiations ou traces du même archétype mythique. Les rencontres symboliques avec les personnages féminins – les chimères nervaliennes – désigneraient un parcours initiatique de connaissance, comme en témoigne clairement le dernier chapitre. Il s’agit d’un cheminement qu’on pourrait synthétiser en trois étapes idéales, mais non nécessairement consécutives : l’expérience du réel (Sylvie), de l’idéal (Adrienne) et du désenchantement (Aurélie). À travers ce parcours initiatique, l’amoureux nervalien aboutirait enfin à une sorte de quiétude philosophique, chargée d’amertume bien que fortifiée par la sagesse de la maturité, un calme qui n’oscille plus que pour se tourner, mais un instant seulement, vers un ancien rêve de félicité : « Là était le bonheur peut-être ; cependant… » (Sylvie, XIV.3).

Un singolare fenomeno psichico: Profumo di Luigi Capuana, di Dario Stazzone

Abstract: This article focuses on Luigi Capuana’s second novel, Profumo, published in volume in 1892, and aims at highlighting the originality of its content, irrespective of the uncertainties in its structure. Analysing an unusual “psychic phenomenon”, Capuana reframes the bourgeois triangulation pattern, recovers osmological suggestions, touches on topics that are the focus of freudian research (of which he had no direct knowledge), from hysteria to the cathartic function of language. The representation of masculine pathology – fully and maturely portrayed in his last novel, Il Marchese di Roccaverdina – constitutes a further element of originality in Capuana’s work.

 Ambientalismo e umanitarismo nel diario bellico di De Lollis, di Giovanni Di Iacovo

Abstract: Between 1923 and 1927 Cesare De LoIIis, writer and philologist, observed the physical, socio-economic and cultural reality of Abruzzo, representing it through meditated glimpses of the nature and the human intervention in it. These writings make up the Reisebilder, originally published in the magazine «La Cultura», then collected by Benedetto Croce in a posthumous volume with other writings. In 1955, De Lollis wrote one of his fundamental works, Taccuino di Guerra (War Notebook) where, alongside the more minute notations which reflect his commitment as an officer, there are countless notations, which reveal the soul of the poet, his gaze and his political vision. This paper intends to deepen the interconnections between the geography and the narrative present in these two works by De Lollis, deepening the different role of the gaze in the conditions of war and peace of the author and using a geographical-historical methodology based on the concept of area, which draws on the studies on the subject carried out primarily by Dionisotti, then taken up and expanded by Asor Rosa. The elements of the style used by De Lollis that lead him to be lexically in tune with the integrity of the visited places will be analyzed. The areas are the Alto Adige of his summer holidays, the native land of Abruzzo, which has a central role, and the wanderings through the Roman countryside and the Alban Hills. An examination of the Delollisian odeporic notes will verify the recurrence of various landscape epiphanies. The paper intends to investigate also the relationship between the places of war, the narration of the landscapes and the socio-political analisys of the war made by the author.

Tra fatti e finzioni: Il caso amari, giallo metalettico di Leonida Rèpaci, di Monica Lanzillotta

Abstract:  Il caso Amari by Leonida Répaci is a non-canonical detective novel, starting from the very complex structure that, in homage to Pirandello, is presented as a theatrical canovaccio. The plot lives in the metalectic dimension, both because Rèpaci himself enters the fiction as a character, and because, thanks to the expedient of the séance, the parallel world (that of the afterlife) where the deceased Amleto Amari lives invades the real space. Moreover, Rèpaci, through a dense intertextual game, establishes a strong resemblance with the invented character of Amari and, precisely for this reason, the novel falls within what Lejeune defines as the “autobiographical space” and can be considered Rèpaci’s testament.

Ecologia del sé e letteratura per l’infanzia. Per uno spazio ecopedagogico di riflessione, di Alessandro Gaudio

Abstract: Faced with the need to develop an Ecopedagogy that does not remain scholastic Ecologism and that takes into account human rights and those ones of the earth, social justice and environmental justice, in equal measure, the author considers the ways in which authors such as Silvio D’Arzo, Mario Lodi and Giovanni Arpino, in some of their works for children, have made evident the importance of the individual’s creativity and conscience against machine and power: creativity and consciousness that lead to really encounter the environment, the nature, the reality, to discover the need to live moment by moment and that allow us to infer the peculiar features, still useful today in a culturally delimited but globalized social context marked by the theme of domination and by the opposing one of liberation, of this special narrativity. These are works that stay spontaneously in nature, as only children can do, reaching in this way an original representation, never taken for granted or deprived, both on a perceptive and on an emotional level.

Imre Toth: creazione matematica, il cosmo e la libertà del soggetto, di Nunzio Allocca

Abstract:  This essay deals with Imre Toth’s research on the history of non-Euclidean geometry. Before Einstein’s formulation of the General Theory of Relativity, the famous logician Glottob Frege rejected modern non-Euclidean geometries as frivolous theories. Toth’s works has retraced their ancient origins, and shown that mathematical discussion of foundations in Plato’s Academy and in Aristotle was combined with an investigation into ethics and freedom.

Bruno Maier, una vita da letterato: un breve profilo a cento anni dalla nascita, di Lorena Lazarić

Abstract: A tribute to the great Trieste critic in the centenary of his birth to commemorate his great commitment to bringing authors of Istrian, Trieste and Italian literature closer and known to the public.

Lasciamoci il futuro alle spalle. La concezione del tempo fra antichi e contemporanei, di Salvatore Alessandro Scibetta

Abstract: The article contains a linguistic analysis of the most common terms and expressions which the Romans used to refer to the temporal dimension. Starting from the conviction that every language expresses a certain conception of the world, the article proposes a motivated comparison between the Roman conception, considered linked to an archaic and traditional conception of the time, and the modern one, already emerging in the bosom of same Latinity. We contemporaries perceive time in an almost opposite way to that expressed by Roman culture, at least the archaic and republican one, but we do so using terms that etymologically are linked to that. In this way we should face with a sort of cognitive short circuit that allows us, on the one hand, to keep distance between us and them, in a culture sense, on the other hand, to stimulate some critical reflections on the contemporary epistemological horizon and its continuous projection forward in the future, perhaps only apparent.

Pandemie, glossari e visioni: il Realismo Terminale e la poesia di Giuseppe Langella, di Stefania Segatori

Abstract: This essay examines a new Italian poetic current, The Terminal Realism, and its main authors, topics and stylistic features. It highlights the modernity of the poems which, inspiring to the traditional poetic forms, intends to propose a new art of the present time, between a lost humanity and another to conquer. Especially with regards to Giuseppe Langella poems, one of the founding fathers of the Terminal Realism, this article analyses the vision and the language of the poet, who stands out for the important themes suggested (the deepest anthropological transformations of our century, the social inequality, the risks of the climate change, the tragedy of wars and consequent exodus of refugees) and his bitter irony.

 

Storia dell’editoria

Il marchio Rizzoli e la collana «Sidera» (1947-1971), di Maria Peluso

Abstract: «Sidera» is a collection of biographies and novels, which was published by Rizzoli Publishing House from 1947 to 1971. Any reference literature and overall literary criticism about «Sidera» has always been quite bare and limited, mainly due to the fact that this collection never played a pivotal role within the publishing choices and the management decisions carried out by Casa Rizzoli. Furthermore, the lack of a catalogue of the series has prevented a more extensive and accurate analysis. The following archives and collections have all been essential for the findings of facts, events as well as the external and internal relationships of Casa Rizzoli: Archivi Milanesi, “A.L.I. (Agenzia Letteraria Internazionale)/ Erich Linder”, “Domenico Porzio” at Fondazione Arnoldo and Alberto Mondadori, Archivio Rizzoli at Fondazione Corriere della Sera, “Giuseppe Monanni” Archive at “Centro Apice. Archivi della Parola dell’Immagine e della Comunicazione Editoriale” at Milan University. 

 

Inediti e traduzione

Per un ritratto di Max Jacob degli anni Venti secondo Emilio Cecchi: saggi dimenticati e lettere inedite, di Laura Giurdanella

Abstract: After more than ten years from the last survey on the reception of Max Jacob’s work in Italy, an essay seems to have escaped the analysis of both Jacobian and Italian scholars. It deals with an article written by Emilio Cecchi in the Italian journal «La Tribuna». After that, a series of unpublished letters and one translation on the Belgian literary review «Le Disque Vert» testify to mutual esteem and appreciation. What is certain is that the Italian essay offers an interesting interpretation of Jacob’s 1920s production.

 

Recensioni

Carlo Vecce, Il Decameron di Pasolini storia di un sogno (2022), di Carmine Chiodo

Pantaleone Sergi, Il giudice, sua madre e il basilisco (2022), di Alessandro Gaudio

Claudio Morandini, Catalogo dei silenzi e delle attese (2022), di Norma Stramucci

Roberto Carnero, Pasolini. Morire per le idee (2021), di Carmine Chiodo

Carlo Emilio Gadda, I Luigi di Francia (2021), di Edoardo Panei